Volume 14, Issue 9, September 2023 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

Publication for Volume 14, Issue 9, September 2023 Edition - IJSER Journal Publication

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Repurposing Non-Cancer Drugs for the Treatment of Lung Cancer []

Lung cancer (LC) possesses considerable malignancy and propensity for metastasis, resulting in it being the primary contributor to cancer-related fatalities globally, responsible for 18% of cancer-related deaths. Escalating rates of treatment failure, limited bioavailability, safety concerns, elevated expenses, and protracted drug development processes in cancer therapy have prompted the exploration of alternative avenues for drug discovery. Investigating established non-cancer medications for their potential anticancer effects offers a rapid route for advancing therapeutic strategies into clinical trials. The rationale behind repurposing non-cancer drugs for cancer treatment stems from the shared molecular pathways and targets that various diseases exhibit within cells. Consequently, drugs initially designed to combat diabetes, infections, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, psychiatric disorders, and parasitic infections are being reconsidered for lung cancer treatment. This review extensively discusses the repurposing of these drugs as potential treatments for lung cancer.


The research is on designing water distribution network that best represent the hydraulic and water quality modeling realities in Sokoto network area and its environs. Residual chlorine observed results at thirty (30) different locations were determined in the network area. A well calibrated and validated, ideal model for Sokoto water distribution network, was developed after series of adjustments, tinkering and tweaking of the hydraulic simulation components and the water quality simulation variables. The network sample calibration locations are 31, 9, 8, 34, 24, 20, 22, 29, 19 and 16. The network sample validation locations are 18, 21, 17, 25, 23, 30, 27, and 11.Sokoto network system calibration and validation of the predicted and observed data was computed and gives calibration correlation R2 to be 0.908 and validation correlation R2 to be 0.648. Validated Epanet 2.0 Sokoto WDS average kb at the pipe wall is 55.08%, at the bulk of flow is 12.28% and at the system tanks is 32.64%. It Infer that Sokoto WDN chlorine decay is mostly concentrated at the pipe walls and at the tank, with the least decay occurring at the bulk of flow. Keywords:Water Distribution Network, Bulk and Wall decay coefficients, Calibration and Validation


The research is on chlorine evolution simulation and temperature effect on residual chlorine in Sokoto water distribution network using Epanet Multi-Species Extension (MSX). Two input files were prepared, the first one, is a standard Epanet 2.0 input file that describes the hydraulic characteristics of the network being analyzed. The second file is the special Epanet-Multi-Species Extension file that describes the species being simulated and the chemical reaction/equilibrium model that governs their dynamics. I.e. residual chlorine and temperaturedecay species. First order reaction chlorine decay model was used (-Kb*CL2) for EpanetMSX chlorine simulation at an assumed temperature of 25oC, with detailed chlorine settling results per hour for 6 hours to be 0.2 mg/l, 0.17 mg/l, 0.15 mg/l, 0.13 mg/l, 0.1 mg/l, 0.06 mg/l, respectively and for temperature implementation in Sokoto water distribution network using Epanet-MSX water quality command line approach the following equation was used:(-Kb*CL2*EXP(-25.211*(25-Tw)/(273+Tw).at varying temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, and 44oC. The results indicate temperature influence on residual chlorine per hour respectively as 0.2 mg/l, 0.19 mg/l, 0.18 mg/l, 0.18 mg/l, 0.17 mg/l, 0.16 mg/l, 0.15 mg/l, 0.14 mg/l, 0.13 mg/l, 0.12 mg/l. Keywords:Chlorine Evolution Simulation, Temperature, Residual Chlorine,Bulk and Wall decay coefficients.

Antibiotic resistance against rifampicin in E. Coli []

Every fifteen minutes, one person in the United States dies because of an infection that antibiotics can no longer treat effectively. This striking estimate comes from a major report released recently on the imminent – and very current – threat posed by antibiotic resistance. Not only is antibiotic resistance a problem, but it is a crisis. More than 2.8 million antibiotic resistant infections occur in the US alone each year, causing over 35,000 deaths. Over 700,000 people worldwide die each year from antibiotic resistant infections, and if radical change isn’t immediately implemented, these numbers will continue to rise exponentially. The British government commissioned a study predicting a worst-case scenario regarding the progression of antibiotic resistance, where more people will die by the year 2050 from antibiotic resistant infections than from cancer. Our antibiotic resistance crisis has largely arisen from our irresponsibility regarding the usage and distribution of these precious drugs. Every time we administer antibiotics, we are applying a selective pressure to a bacterial population, thus giving rise to natural selection and the possibility of bacterial mutations that confer resistance. The CDC estimates that approximately 30% of all prescribed antibiotics are unnecessary; this accounts for 47 million excess prescriptions. And it may seem that these superfluous prescriptions are driving our resistance epidemic, however, 70% of all antibiotics produced in the U.S. are used in agriculture. These multi-billion dollar meat corporations want to maximize revenue (i.e. production at minimal cost) and so employ antibiotics sub-therapeutically (to promote weight gain and increase feed efficiency), as well as for prophylaxis and metaphylaxis. This overuse of antibiotics gives bacteria ample opportunity for evolution and adaptation to the selective pressure. Antibiotic resistance occurs due to the advent of mutations that allow bacteria to defend against these drugs; this causes the antibiotic to no longer be effective in eliminating infection. These mutations that confer antibiotic resistance provide the bacteria with a selective advantage, and they will survive and reproduce in the presence of antibiotics. The resulting bacterial strain can then pass resistance genes to other bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. Additionally, bacteria can develop resistance to a number of antibiotics, resulting in strains called superbugs.

4D Harmonization of Non-Dedicated Time-Lapse Datasets - The CODD Field, Onshore Niger Delta Case Study []

The application of time-lapse seismic method for reservoir monitoring in onshore Niger Delta oilfields has been faced with some challenges due to environmental changes resulting from urbanization and industrial growth. These changes have posed great difficulties in acquisition of 4D seismic data in the Niger Delta. Combined with renewed exploration interest, repeat surveys usually have different acquisition geometries thereby creating geometrical repeatability problems. This has been recognized as a major source of 4D noise. In the time-lapse processing of CODD field onshore Niger Delta base and monitor datasets which were acquired with different geometries and systems, we tested two methods of 4D binning with the goal of improving spatial repeatability while maintaining time-lapse signal. By identifying trace pairs that are close to each other and subsequent processing of these pairs, differences in acquisition between vintages is reduced and 4D processing is improved. The NRMS metrics was employed to qualify 4D data quality improvement.

"Gender Diversity and Corporate Anti-Corruption Disclosure: Evidence from MENA Region" []

This research studies the relation between board gender diversity and the quality of anti-corruption disclosure (ACD) in MENA region. The dataset includes 354 MENA region banks covering four countries, namely, Lebanon, Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia for the period of 2013-2020. A content analysis is performed for the banks’ websites and the annual reports, corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports and sustainability reports published by the banks. A descriptive study is performed to determine the quality of ACD in the banks, followed by an analytical study to identify its association with boardroom gender diversity. Results indicate a significant relation between boardroom gender diversity and ACD in Jordan and Saudi Arabia, while an insignificant association was found in Lebanon and Egypt.

Morphological Traits According to BMI of LRP5rs121908669 Genotypes Carriers []

Background & Aim: Descriptive diagnostics is a part of the clinical diagnosis. Not reliable but it is an important prompt. Therefore, it is necessary to know the phenotypes of the genotyped carrier for the LRP5G171R. This study is the first of its kind worldwide. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 150 pre& post -menopausal women with a mean age of 40 years. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. To determine the genotypes of LRP5rs121908669, PCR-RFLP assay was performed and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Likehood test, Chi-Square test, The binary logistic regression test, Odd Ratio test were used as statistical studies to determine the relationship between BMI and genotypes of LRP5G171R. Results: Likehood test confirms the relationship between BMI and LRP5G171R (Ï°2 =15.658, p=0.048).The results indicate that there are positive correlations between obese and extremely obese BMI and GG(Ï°2 =23.707, 14.013 p=0.000, 0.00), successively. There is a negative correlation between normal BMI and GG (Ï°2 =19.675, p=0.000). There is a negative correlation between extremely obese BMI and CC(Ï°2 =12.466, p=0.000). There is a negative correlation between obese BMI and GC(Ï°2 =19.997, p=0.000).Discussion: No previous studies have identified morphological traits in terms of BMI, but in general there are studies confirming the relationship of the LRP5 gene has a significant role in metabolism and adipocyte biology. This is consistent with the results of this study.Conclusion: Finally, obesity and extremely obesity are positive things. The carriers of the mutanted LRP5G171R(GC,CC) will be protected from obesity, unlike the carriers of normal genotype (GG) will suffer from obesity. It can be added to NCBI as an associated SNP to obesity.

LRP5G171R, can it play a role similar to the hormonal factor in its effect on the lumbar BMD? []

Background and aims: LRP5G171R(LRP5rs121908669) is a proven pathogenic single nucleotide polymorphism SNP for a disease associated with high bone mass HBM. There is no genotyping study for it until now. There is no idea about its relationship with other cases of BMD. There is no idea about its relationship to lumbar BMD. Hormonal factors are usually responsible for the lack of density in the spongy bone, which is the main component of vertebral bone, but what is about the responsibility of genetic factor? So,the goal is whether the genetic factor, specifically the LRP5 G171R has a role in changing the mineral density in the lumbar region. Methods: LRP5rs121908669 was diagnosed using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing in Syrian pre &post-menopuasal women. Related-Samples McNemar Change Test was used under 95% confidence level (α ≤ .050) to study distribution LRP5G171R genotypes across lumbar T-score values. The Odd Ratio test was used to identify the odd risk for lumbar T-score values when LRP5G171R genotype is absence or existed. Chi-Square Tests(ꭓ2) were used to estimate the correlation between genotypes and each of lumbar T- score under 95% confidence (α ≤ .050). Results: Significant chance to occurrence GG genotype, CC genotype, GC genotype in normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis lumbar T –score values are ( GG 51.5%, 0.00%, 0.00%, CC 0.00%, 1%, 26.5%, GC 0.00%, 10.4%, 3%),respectively. There are significant correlation between GG genotype and normal, osteopenia lumbar T –score values, but no significant correlation with osteoporosis lumbar T –score values ꭓ2=6.302, p = . 012< .05, ꭓ2=5.919, p = . 01< .05, ꭓ2= .130, p=.719> .05, respectively. There are significant correlation between CC genotype and osteopenia lumbar T –score values, but no significant correlation with normal and osteoporosis lumbar T –score values with ꭓ2=3.846, p = . 05= .05, ꭓ2= 7.731, p = . 005< .05, ꭓ2=.204, p = . 651> .05, respectively. There are no significant correlation between GC genotype and normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis lumbar T –score values with ꭓ2= 1.658, p = . 198> .05, ꭓ2= 0.989, p = . 320> .05, ꭓ2= .363, p = . 547> .05, respectively. Conclusions: There is an effect of LRP5G171R on BMD in the lumbar region according to the genotype. GG is associated with normal BMD while CC GC is associated with deficient BMD

Effectiveness Additional Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles on Flexural Strength and Surface Hardness Heat Polymerization Acrylic Resin Denture Bases: A Systematic Literature Review []

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of the addition of silicon dioxide nanoparticles on the flexural strength and surface hardness of the denture base of heat polymerization acrylic resin. Methods: Two electronic databases were searched through 2012-2022. The terms “(*nanoparticles* AND *SiO2* AND *Silicon dioxide* AND *Silica* AND *flexural strength* AND *surface hardness* AND *heat cured resin acrylic* OR *denture*) was chosen. Articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. The database search resulted in a total of 587 potential studies. Results: After screening titles and abstracts and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5 studies were collected for a full text assessment. Full text assessment resulted in 5 studies that were eligible of qualitative synthesis. Checklist Critical Appraisal (CEBM) with scoring method resulted that there was 3 studies with 10 scores and 2 studies with 9 scores. Conclusion: The quantity of concentration used in 5 studies was 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% concentration of silicon dioxide nanoparticles and additional with 5% concentration of silicon dioxide nanoparticles shows the best result in increasing the flexural strength and surface hardness of heat polymerization acrylic resin of denture base.

Uncovering Essential Dietary Components for Disease Prevention []

In recent years, there have been notable shifts in global dietary patterns driven by the increasing awareness of the significant impact of diet on overall health. This heightened recognition has resulted in a preference for smaller, nutrient-dense meals. Diet's essential role in disease susceptibility is evident in conditions such as cancer, diabetes, asthma, obesity, and COVID-19. Promoting a plant-based diet and reducing red meat consumption emerged as effective strategies for cancer prevention. Antioxidant properties and fatty acid modulation in fruits, vegetables, fish, and the Mediterranean diet enhance asthma immunity through nutrient diversity. In the context of type 2 diabetes, adopting a healthy diet improves insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammation, and optimizes gut microbiome health, facilitating weight loss. Essential nutrients like vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants are crucial in bolstering immune function and potentially mitigating complications associated with COVID-19. Integrating these factors into nutritional approaches holds promise for disease prevention and management.

Recent Method for Synthesis of Coumarin derivatives using Grignard Reagent and Their New Application []

Various Grignard Reagents were allowed to react with 7-methoxy-8-coumarinyl ketones(1,2,3) and 7-methoxy-8-formyl Coumarin (4) afforded 2,2 benzopyran derivatives (5-9),unsaturated ketones, alcohols(10-13), alcohols and olefinic derivatives of Coumarins (14-19), unsaturated ketones (10-13) have been assigned E-configuration.

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